A survey-based study explored approaches used by one land-grant university to meet the needs of Extension clients who face language, vision, or hearing challenges. In attempts to serve such clients, the greatest gaps existed for clients whose main language was Spanish, followed by those who had vision impairments and then those who had hearing difficulties. Extension professionals surveyed recommended that use of resources to meet the needs of such clients be prioritized as follows: accommodating clients who face language challenges (those whose main language is Spanish), using contractors to adapt materials or provide live assistance, and providing applicable technology or equipment.
Angima, S., Etuk, L., & Maddy, D. (2016). Accommodating Extension Clients Who Face Language, Vision, or Hearing Challenges. The Journal of Extension, 54(4), Article 24. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol54/iss4/24