The two-part study reported here analyzed the effects of beekeeper education and colony creation methods on colony mortality. The first study examined the difference in hive mortality between hives managed by beekeepers who had received formal training in beekeeping with beekeepers who had not. The second study examined the effect on hive mortality between hives that were initiated as nucleus or package colonies. Colonies created from package bees were more likely to survive for 1 year than nucleus colonies. Colonies managed by beekeepers who had received formal education also exhibited better survival rates than those managed by non-educated beekeepers.
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Findlay, J., Eborn, B., & Jones, W. (2015). Effects of Colony Creation Method and Beekeeper Education on Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Mortality. The Journal of Extension, 53(1), Article 20. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol53/iss1/20