Surveys are commonly used in Extension to identify client needs or evaluate program outcomes. This article examines how available email addresses can be incorporated into mixed-mode procedures for surveys. When mail and email addresses are used to implement a sequence of email and postal invitations in a mixed-mode survey, response rates were somewhat lower than those for mail only surveys. Item nonresponse is, however, lower for questionnaires completed via the Web, and costs for postage were substantially lower for the mixed-mode groups (because 60% of the surveys were completed via the Web). The study demonstrates the benefit of using mixed-mode surveys.
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Israel, G. D. (2013). Using Mixed-Mode Contacts in Client Surveys: Getting More Bang for Your Buck. The Journal of Extension, 51(3), Article 19. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol51/iss3/19