To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated significant increases and decreases in mean levels of participants' positive and negative behaviors respectively (M pos = 17.13, p = .000; M neg = 4.76 ; p = .005). Additionally, researchers describe how program principles can be incorporated into 4-H curricula, expanding positive youth development opportunities for horse-novice and horse-experienced youth.
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Pendry, P., Roeter, S., Smith, A., Jacobsen, S., & Erdman, P. (2013). Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior During Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth. The Journal of Extension, 51(1), Article 34. https://doi.org/10.34068/joe.51.01.34