This article describes two methods for use in program development and refinement. Problem mapping and forcefield analysis are explained with a real-world example about parenting education. Both methods are visual and consider multiple causes and effects of a problem. The methods are effective for clearly thinking through a problem, identifying opportunities, partners, and programming possibilities. These methods can be used with groups to help identify problems and resulting needs, to select possible solutions, and then to use the information to design and refine programs.
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Forstadt, L. A., & Doore, B. (2012). Program Planning with Problem Mapping to Better Understand Need. The Journal of Extension, 50(1), Article 30. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol50/iss1/30