Extension professionals want to use the Web for conducting surveys, but studies show using the Web alone introduces significant bias. The study reported here compared strategies for obtaining responses that might minimize cost and bias. E-mail and postal invitations to the Web-hosted survey version were compared to the postal mail-only standard. The response rate was highest when using an e-mailed invitation, followed by the traditional mail-only mode and the postal invitation/Web-hosted mode. It appears the best strategy for minimizing the cost of collecting data and maximizing representativeness is to use e-mail invitations when available and postal mail for those without e-mail.
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Israel, G. D. (2011). Strategies for Obtaining Survey Responses from Extension Clients: Exploring the Role of E-Mail Requests. The Journal of Extension, 49(3), Article 7. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol49/iss3/7