By using an ecological framework, this article provides a review of common barriers to healthful eating and being physically active. The barriers are described within the four levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community/institution, and macro/public policy) of an ecological model highlighting the need for multifaceted approaches to overcome these barriers. Examples of how Extension professionals can effectively target these barriers to promote healthier lifestyles and encourage the development of related policies and community programs are given. Practical examples of interventions that have successfully used an ecological model to promote behavior change are also provided.
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Fitzgerald, N., & Spaccarotella, K. (2009). Barriers to a Healthy Lifestyle: From Individuals to Public Policy—An Ecological Perspective. The Journal of Extension, 47(1), Article 2. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol47/iss1/2