Practitioners are often asked to engage the public with limited resources at their disposal. While scholars encourage the use of more deliberate public participation mechanisms, resource constraints often require practitioners to utilize more limited public involvement tools. This article summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of three public involvement tools: citizen surveys, public hearings/meetings, and stakeholder interviews. This assessment should provide preliminary guidance in utilizing the appropriate public involvement tools when resource and time constraints do not allow for an extensive public deliberation process.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.



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