We conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of propane cannons and flagging to reduce or eliminate Canada goose damage to winter wheat. Our preliminary results indicate that propane cannons and flagging offer cost-efficient, non-lethal options for protecting winter wheat from Canada goose damage. Propane cannons seem to be more effective than flags and may be recommended by Extension professionals where applicable and in situations where crop losses exceed the cost to purchase and operate a propane cannon.
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Drake, D., & Vilano, A. (2005). Effectiveness of Flagging and Propane Cannons to Disperse Canada Geese in Winter Wheat Fields. The Journal of Extension, 43(2), Article 17. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol43/iss2/17