Pesticide use patterns in 1978 and 1998 were compared for 15 vegetable crops grown in New York State. Insecticide use decreased in almost all vegetables over this period, with an overall decline of 65%. Total herbicide use declined 24%, while fungicide use increased 76%. Within crops, potatoes and onions received more than 60% of all pesticide use on vegetables. Large declines in pesticide use occurred in some crops and usually were associated with the substitution of low use-rate for high use-rate insecticides or herbicides. Strategies for future reductions in pesticide use are discussed.
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Stivers-Young, L. J., Kuhar, T. P., & Hoffmann, M. P. (2003). Pesticide Use Changes in New York Vegetables: 1978 to 1998. The Journal of Extension, 41(2), Article 11. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol41/iss2/11