Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Planning, Design, and the Built Environment

Committee Chair/Advisor

Dr. Mary G. Padua

Committee Member

Dr. Matthew Powers

Committee Member

Dr. Aby Sène-Harper

Committee Member

Dr. Niall G. Kirkwood


Technology in Landscape Architecture (TLA) has continually expanded from the 19th century arts-science binary narrative (Beardsley, 2000). However, the current scholarly literature does not appear to acknowledge TLA as core to the discipline of Landscape Architecture (LA) and indicates a knowledge gap. The goal of this qualitative research is to explore TLA and clarify DTT and TLA’s relationship(s) with themes and topics in LA research, and LA core domains. Additionally, the aim is to reveal the meaning of TLA for LA research. This study draws from three realms of knowledge: 1) Digital Tools and Technology (DTT) in LA; 2) LA Core Domains; and 3) Trends and Themes in LA Research. This study utilizes a mixed methods approach involving secondary data from peer-reviewed publications, the archival review of ASLA award winning projects, and primary data generated from expert interviews. This study also incorporates the Grounded Theory (GT) approach where content analysis of expert interviews (who can be both a professional practitioner and scholar) combined with the analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and archival research of award-winning projects assisted in determining patterns, categories, and codes for navigating TLA. In the final analysis and interpretation, a novel conceptualization for understanding TLA in the 21st century was synthesized. The significance of this research demonstrates ways technology has evolved from DTT as one of the LA core domains and suggests the discipline of LA has shifted from the art-science binary to an emergent 21st century conceptual tri-partite narrative consisting of art, science, and technology.

Author ORCID Identifier


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