Date of Award


Document Type

Terminal Project

Degree Name

Master of City and Regional Planning (MCRP)


Planning, Development and Preservation

Committee Member

Dr. Clifford Ellis (Committee Chair)

Committee Member

Professor Stephen Sperry


Over the last century, walking and cycling rates have decreased dramatically in favor of individual car use. This has increased obesity rates and dramatically altered the way cities are planned. There is a sense of exclusivity in regard to the car and pedestrians and cyclists suffer because of this. In recent years however, there has been a larger push for more traditional cities that allow for more walkable and bikeable environments. While this can easily be achieved with new development, the case is not the same for existing infrastructure. Retrofitting sprawling cities requires numerous tactics to increase density, walking, biking, and interconnectivity.