Low family socioeconomic status (SES) has been noted to impact children and youths’ development, specifically in cognitive skills and risky behaviors (Brieant et al., 2021). Low SES often increases stressors for parents, may hinder monitoring of youth if parents must work multiple jobs, and may impact child-parent quality time and bonding (Conger & Conger, 2002). It also presents barriers to cognitively stimulating resources and social activities. Children from lower SES families are less likely to visit the zoo, go to museums, or attend cultural arts performances, which are important for positive, healthy development (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002). Youth from low-income families and communities often have low quality resources for mental health, fewer organized activities for youth and families, and decreased social support in comparison to moderate- to high-income families (Andrews et al., 2015).

In addition, impoverished communities struggling with high unemployment rates, high rates of property, and violent crimes pose risks for children/youths, such as lower academic achievement, psychological problems (anxiety, fear, anger), and increased likelihood for maladaptive behaviors (Bowen & Bowen, 1999; CDC, 2021). Studies have found that youth from low-SES families and communities are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, especially during early adolescence, like smoking, drug use, delinquency, and fighting (Cambron et al., 2018; Piotrowska et al., 2015).



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