Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium (GRADS)


Dr. Russ Marion

Document Type



Educational Leadership (Higher Education)

Publication Date

Spring 2013


This study analyzes the effects of political culture of fear on perceptions of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships between student and faculty, and perceptions of the nature of leadership in Libyan universities. Data were collected by survey from 237 students from 7 different Libyan universities. Factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analysis the data. The results of this study show that LMX relationship between faculties and students is classified into three factors: professional respect, affect, and loyalty, culture of fear is classified into three factors: fiction, force, and fealty-finance, and leadership items grouped into 6 factors: Charismatic I, Charismatic II, Autocratic, Malevolent, Team Oriented, and Self Protective. According to the structural equation modeling analysis, Culture of fear affects all LMX and 5 leadership factors and LMX affects 5 Leadership factors.