This study examined the relationships among happiness-related factors, as well as the relation between the antecedents of happiness (e.g., an individual's personality, situations, and voluntary behavior) and self-reported individual differences. Three hundred forty-seven undergraduates completed measures of happiness, positive affect, subjective well-being, contentment, self-compassion, depression, neuroticism, mindfulness, and openness to experience. Participants also indicated the percentage of their happiness due to personality, the situation, and voluntary behaviors. The results corroborate evidence for happiness being most indicative of a multidimensional construct, as contentment, subjective well-being, and happiness were highly related. Additionally, in spite of research showing that almost half of our happiness is determined by voluntary actions, participants, on average, divided the happiness pie into thirds, attributing their happiness to personality (30.36%), the situation (36.88%), and voluntary actions (32.7%).
Morgan, M.; Webb, M.; Stephens, J.; Turner, J.; Frazee, L.; Whittaker, E.; Martin, J.; Zaremba, B.; Newsome, B.; Bokman, A.; Kowalski, R.; and Baker, B., "Redefining happiness: Is the happiness pie literature missing some slices?" (2014). Focus on Creative Inquiry. 2.