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Applied and Environmental Microbiology


American Society for Microbiology


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) on transformation of high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Acetobacterium woodii (ATCC 29683). Complete transfor-mation of 470 􀀀M (72 mg/liter [aqueous]) CT was achieved by A. woodii within 2.5 days, when 10 􀀀M OH-Cbl was added along with 25.2 mM fructose. This was approximately 30 times faster than A. woodii cultures (live or autoclaved) and medium that did not receive OH-Cbl and 5 times faster than those controls that did receive OH-Cbl, but either live A. woodii or fructose was missing. CT transformation in treatments with only OH-Cbl was indicative of the important contribution of nonenzymatic reactions. Besides increasing the rate of CT transformation, addition of fructose and OH-Cbl to live cultures increased the percentage of [14C]CT trans-formed to 14CO2 (up to 31%) and 14C-labeled soluble materials (principally L-lactate and acetate), while decreasing the percentage of CT reduced to chloroform and abiotically transformed to carbon disulfide. 14CS2 represented more than 35% of the [14C]CT in the presence of reduced medium and OH-Cbl. Conversion of CT to CO was a predominant pathway in formation of CO2 in the presence of live cells and added fructose and OH-Cbl. These results indicate that the rate and distribution of products during cometabolic transformation of CT by A. woodii can be improved by the addition of fructose and OH-Cbl.


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