Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title









The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV) assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC) can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT) can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

The published version can be found here: