Annals of Biomedical Engineering
The purpose of this article is to validate numerical simulations of flow and pressure incorporating deformable walls using in vitro flow phantoms under physiological flow and pressure conditions. We constructed two deformable flow phantoms mimicking a normal and a restricted thoracic aorta, and used a Windkessel model at the outlet boundary. We acquired flow and pressure data in the phantom while it operated under physiological conditions. Next, in silico numerical simulations were performed, and velocities, flows, and pressures in the in silico simulations were compared to those measured in the in vitro phantoms. The experimental measurements and simulated results of pressure and flow waveform shapes and magnitudes compared favorably at all of the different measurement locations in the two deformable phantoms. The average difference between measured and simulated flow and pressure was approximately 3.5 cc/s (13% of mean) and 1.5 mmHg (1.8% of mean), respectively. Velocity patterns also showed good qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation especially in regions with less complex flow patterns. We demonstrated the capabilities of numerical simulations incorporating deformable walls to capture both the vessel wall motion and wave propagation by accurately predicting the changes in the flow and pressure waveforms at various locations down the length of the deformable flow phantoms.
Kung, E.O., Les, A.S., Figueroa, C.A. et al. In Vitro Validation of Finite Element Analysis of Blood Flow in Deformable Models. Ann Biomed Eng 39, 1947–1960 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-011-0284-7