Simulations of blood flow in the cardiovascular system offer investigative and predictive capabilities to augment current clinical tools. Using image-based modeling, the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved to obtain detailed 3-dimensional hemodynamics in patient-specific anatomical models. Relevant parameters such as wall shear stress and particle residence times can then be calculated from the 3D results and correlated with clinical data for treatment planning and device evaluation. Reduced-order models such as open or closed loop 0D lumped-parameter models can simulate the dynamic behavior of the circulatory system using an analogy to electrical circuits. When coupled to 3D simulations as boundary conditions, they produce physiologically realistic pressure and flow conditions in the 3D domain. We describe fundamentals and current state of the art of patient-specific, multi-scale computational modeling approaches applied to cardiovascular disease. These tools enable investigations of hemodynamics reflecting individual patients physiology, and we provide several illustrative case studies. These methods can supplement current clinical measurement and imaging capabilities and provide predictions of patient outcomes for surgical planning and risk stratification.
Marsden A, Kung E, “Multi-scale Modeling of Cardiovascular Flows” Computational Bioengineering, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Editor: Guigen Zhang