Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

Legacy Department


Committee Chair/Advisor

Clark, Caroline

Committee Member

Grosby , Steven

Committee Member

Marks , Steven


One of the fascinating aspects of this research is how what individuals believe to be true leads to collective action as a society. Research for this paper will show the evolution of Christian theology from the early Christian rejection of the physical world to the medieval reliance on physical people, places and objects as a connection to heaven. This paper will also track the creation of penitential warfare as a way of entering heaven. This paper will prove that Jerusalem was important to medieval Europeans for three reasons: saving the city from the Muslims was an act of penance, the city was a way into heaven and the city was a source of holy places and relics which provided Gods protection.



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