Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Legacy Department

Packaging Science

Committee Chair/Advisor

Kimmel, Robert

Committee Member

Darby , Duncan

Committee Member

Cooksey , Kay


A data recorder was built and qualified to record package orientation over time. The device was then used to observe the effects on package orientation during UPS ground shipping of current and modified ASTM D5445-03 'This Side Up' symbols. Modified symbols on packages demonstrated the effects of contrasting color relationships on symbol noticeability and human compliance. Shipping trials were conducted through UPS distribution centers for cube-shaped packages equipped with custom designed tri-axial accelerometers. Data recorded on 112 shipments provide comparisons of four ASTM D5445-03 'This Side Up' symbols: unmodified, modified blue, modified 'black and white', and control (no symbol). Data analysis revealed package orientation changes did not differ between any of the samples for changes in orientations lasting between 1 and 3 seconds. These changes were attributed to non-human impacts, vibrations, and drops. Orientation changes lasting from 3-20, 20-3600 and greater than 3600 seconds did not differ significantly between the ASTM standard and the control. It was found that the modified blue and modified 'back and white' symbols reduced the number of orientation changes from 20-3600 seconds. Statistical analysis showed that the modified 'black and white symbol' significantly reduced total orientation changes when compared to the other symbols tested. Human compliance towards the modified symbols is analyzed in light of the 1924 Hawthorne experiments. The thesis describes the accelerometer construction, experimental design, and detailed results of the study.

Included in

Engineering Commons



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