Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Plant and Environmental Science

Committee Chair/Advisor

Haibo Liu

Committee Member

Juang Chong

Committee Member

Dilrukshi Thavarajah


Endophyte-infected plants have reduced the level of herbivory. The defense to herbivory can vary due to the metabolites in the plant and the method of feeding from the pest. Secondary metabolites produced by the endophytes are mainly alkaloids. The associations between endophytes and some alkaloid groups are studied in greater detail. The lack of research of certain alkaloid groups ultimately means that some alkaloids had more data that could be analyzed. As a result, the alkaloid groups were not evenly represented in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis analyzed the relative effectiveness of the metabolites or endophytes in each of the articles reviewed. Relative effectiveness was calculated by dividing the treatment value by the control and subtracting that from one. Relative effectiveness ranged from 0 (no effect) to 1 (high relative effectiveness). By using the meta-analysis, a correlation between secondary metabolites and their effect on herbivory would be presented. The meta-analysis consisted of three important and most commonly documented life history parameters of insects, namely; general survival, food consumption, and end weight. The relative effectiveness showed that the survival was most significantly decreased by the metabolite. This was then followed by the decrease of the weight of the pest. Food consumption was not affected by the metabolites generally, but in some cases, it increased with the type of metabolites present.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.