Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Architecture and Health

Committee Chair/Advisor

Anjali Joseph

Committee Member

David Allison

Committee Member

Deborah Wingler


Starting in December 2019 to the current time in May 2022, COVID-19 was a devastating pandemic with approximately 440 million cases and 6 million deaths worldwide (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2021). The United States (US) with roughly 90 million cases and 1 million deaths (CDC, 2021) was one of the epicenters of the outbreak since the beginning. The pandemic has significantly impacted the health systems across the US with unpredictable surges of highly infectious patients with uncertain symptomology and acuity levels, requiring isolation and critical level of care (Brambilla et al., 2021).

Based on the findings from the available literature and case reports of the pandemic impacts and responses, it is clear that the pandemic has put unprecedented pressure on US healthcare facilities, which are not intentionally designed to respond to a pandemic of this scale. Hospitals have struggled to adapt to the increased care complexity, infection control requirements, and the sheer volume of patients (Cohen et al., 2021). The need for such adaptability in the healthcare system has never been clearer as we have observed major deficiencies in how facilities have responded to the pandemic and how the buildings have failed to facilitate and support the required changes in spaces and operations.

Author ORCID Identifier




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