Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management

Committee Member

Dr. Marieke Van Puymbroeck, Committee

Committee Member

Chair Dr. Brandi Crowe

Committee Member

Dr. Arlene Schmid


Sustaining a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has a significant effect on an individual’s physical and mental abilities, resulting in decreased independence. Residual effects of TBI often include sleep and mood disorders. Sleep disorders include any disturbance in an individual’s quality of sleep and daytime functioning as a result; while mood disorders include depression, anxiety, and adjustment to injury. Rehabilitation after TBI involves a wide range of therapeutic services of which recreational therapy can serve as a holistic therapy, addressing both the mind and the body. Yoga as a recreational therapy intervention may be used to improve functioning for individuals with TBI. Thus, the purpose of this convergent mixed methods study was to examine the effects of yoga on individuals with TBI related to their sleep and mood. This research study involved an eight-week yoga intervention, which occurred bi-weekly at the Shepherd Center. Six individuals with TBI completed the intervention. Pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments were given to measure sleep and mood. Upon completion of the intervention, participants and their caregivers took part in focus groups to share their perceptions of change in sleep and mood. Data were collected, analyzed, and reported to discuss the effects of yoga on sleep and mood in individuals with TBI. Quantitative data revealed no statistical significance, though percent change calculations of pre- and post-data showed a substantial decrease in anxiety and an improvement in adjustment to injury. Qualitative data was consistent with the calculated percent change in addition to an emerging theme of social support amongst individuals with TBI.



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