Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Legacy Department

Forest Resources

Committee Chair/Advisor

Mikhailova, Elena

Committee Member

Post, Christopher

Committee Member

Sharp, Julia

Committee Member

McMillan, Patrick


The floristic and phenological (flowering) study of Lake Issaqueena in Pickens
County, SC, conducted by William Pamplin in 1970-1971 was reinvestigated in 2011-
2012 using the Carolina Vegetative Survey (CVS) natural community sampling methods
and photo documentation using a GPS-enabled camera to determine floristic and
phenological changes for this site during the forty years separating these two studies.
Phenological events (flowering) were recorded via photographs taken by a GPS-enabled
camera on a monthly basis. Photographs were downloaded and organized by sampling
date in Picasa 3 web albums and stored in a project Google website. Plants were
identified using expert knowledge, existing keys and the USDA plant database.
Precipitation in 1970, 2011 and 2012 was below the long-term average and this combined
with higher than average air temperature impacted drought severity in the area.
Comparison of phenologies indicated 269 plant species blooming in 1970-1971 compared
to 203 plants blooming in 2011-2012, and 149 common plant species blooming in both
study periods. The blooming period was 11 months in 2011-2012 compared to 8 months
in 1970-1971. A majority of plants were blooming earlier and longer in 2011-2012 than
in 1970-1971. There appears to be a phenological shift in blooming dates, but it is unclear
whether this is due to climatic variation, other environmental changes in the area, or
differences in data collection methods.



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