Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department


Committee Chair/Advisor

Morse, John C.


One genus, Triaenodes of the long-horned caddisfly family Leptoceridae includes approximately 245 species globally and is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring in all major faunal regions. The species of the genus, along with other species of caddisflies, are especially sensitive to pollution and are used by developed countries to monitor water quality.
Two hundred twenty-one species are reviewed and an additional 9 species are new to science. Twenty-six species groups are recognized in these subgenera of Triaenodes. The genus Triaenodes is divided here into seven monophyletic subgenera. The subgenus Ylodes Milne, 1934, has 15 species distributed in the Australasian, East and West Palearctic, and Nearctic regions, but not reviewed (see the 'Checklist and Classification of World Triaenodes' section at the end of Chapter III). The new subgenus Nototriaena has 24 species distributed in only the Neotropical region. The new subgenus Neotriaena has 18 species distributed in only the Australasian region. The subgenus Austrotriaena Yang and Morse, 1993, has 10 species distributed in the Australasian and Oriental regions. The new subgenus Microtriaena has 6 species distributed in the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Nearctic regions. The subgenus Triaenodella Mosely, 1932a, has 57 species distributed worldwide except the Neotropical region. The subgenus Triaenodes Mclachlan, 1865b, has 92 species distributed worldwide except the Neotropical region.
A phylogeny and classification is provided for 203 species in this work, based mainly on morphological characters of the male genitalia. A phylogeny and classification of the subgenus Ylodes is not included.
Keys are provided for the diagnosis of males of all Triaenodes species except those of Ylodes and some nomina dubia, for which the description of the males are inadequate for diagnosis.

Included in

Entomology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.