Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Literacy, Language and Culture

Committee Chair/Advisor

Rachelle S. Savitz

Committee Member

Megan Che

Committee Member

Catherine Compton-Lilly

Committee Member

Susan Fullerton

Committee Member

Emily Howell

Committee Member

Lindsey Rowe


The term Long-term English Learner (LTEL) is problematic. The terminology is used in schools and based upon the number of years that a student has been in US schools and has not met the criteria for reclassification as no longer requiring language support services, accommodations, or continued annual assessment, as required by the federal government for those with a second language learner designation. It can carry with it a connotation of a deficit for the student who remains an English learner beyond five years. This study centered around interviews and observations of a student who met the criteria for being identified as a LTEL in order to understand the impact student perceptions of the schools’ view of language and culture in learning. Transactional relationships in L1 and L2 use, as well as the students’ understanding of what aspects of culture to share within the school are discussed.



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