Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Human Centered Computing

Committee Chair/Advisor

Sabarish Babu

Committee Member

Christopher Pagano

Committee Member

Andrew Robb

Committee Member

Brygg Ullmer


Extended reality, or "XR", is the adopted umbrella term that is heavily gaining traction to collectively describe Virtual reality (VR), Augmented reality (AR), and Mixed reality (MR) technologies. Together, these technologies extend the reality that we experience either by creating a fully immersive experience like in VR or by blending in the virtual and "real" worlds like in AR and MR.

The sustained success of XR in the workplace largely hinges on its ability to facilitate efficient user interactions. Similar to interacting with objects in the real world, users in XR typically interact with virtual integrants like objects, menus, windows, and information that convolve together to form the overall experience. Most of these interactions involve near-field object manipulation for which users are generally provisioned with visual representations of themselves also called self-avatars. Representations that involve only the distal entity are called end-effector representations and they shape how users perceive XR experiences.

Through a series of investigations, this dissertation evaluates the effects of virtual end effector representations on near-field object retrieval interactions in XR settings. Through studies conducted in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality, implications about the virtual representation of end-effectors are discussed, and inferences are made for the future of near-field interaction in XR to draw upon from. This body of research aids technologists and designers by providing them with details that help in appropriately tailoring the right end effector representation to improve near-field interactions, thereby collectively establishing knowledge that epitomizes the future of interactions in XR.

Author ORCID Identifier




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