Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Dr. Annel K. Greene
Dr. Zeynep Guzel-Seydim
Dr. Xiuping Jiang
Dr. Atif C. Seydim
Black seed oil concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 1% and 5% were added to milk inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25°C for 22 h. The pH and microbial count indicated 1% black seed oil caused low inhibition (P > 0.05) of fermentation, but 5% black seed oil caused significant inhibition of the kefir microorganisms (P < 0.05).
Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 256) were distributed in a randomized block design and received one of four treatments: CTRL1 (Non-medicated, no kefir, no Clostridium perfringens), CTRL2 (Non-medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), CTRL3 (BMD medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), KTRT (Non-medicated, kefir treated, C. perfringens inoculated). Kefir was supplied via a 1:10 kefir to water ratio in the chicken water supply. Birds were orally inoculated with Eimeria maxima and C. perfringens on Day 11 and Days 16 through 18, respectively. KTRT (kefir) weight gain was comparable to the medicated CTRL3. CTRL3 and KTRT feed conversion ratios were significantly lower than CTRL2 (untreated). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between CTRL3 and KTRT lesion scores. CTRL3 (antibiotic) mortality rate was significantly lower than other treatments. KTRL (kefir) reduced mortality but not as effectively as CTRL3.
Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 320) were placed in randomized block design and received one of five treatments: CTRL1 (nonmedicated, uninoculated, no kefir, no black seed), CTRL2 (nonmedicated, inoculated, no kefir, no black seed), CTRL3 (medicated, inoculated, no kefir, no black seed), KTRT1 (nonmedicated, inoculated, 2:10 kefir to water supplied in drinking water, no black seed), KTRT2 (nonmedicated, inoculated, kefir, black seed), KH2O (sample of 2:10 kefir-water mixture from water trough). Birds were orally inoculated with E. maxima and C. perfringens on Day 14 and on Days 19 and 20, respectively.
Weight gain of CTRL3 (antibiotic) and KTRT2 (kefir + black seed) increased during D14-D28. Feed intake of KTRT2 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CTRL3 and KTRT1 (kefir). CTRL3 and KTRT2 lesion scores were the lowest of all treatments. KTRT1 was as effective as CTRL3 in the prevention of mortalities. KTRT2 mortality rates were the lowest of all treatments. Results suggest KTRT2 was effective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.
Nixon, Julian E., "Effect of Authentic Kefir and Nigella sativa on Broilers Challenged by Coccidia and Clostridium perfringens" (2023). All Dissertations. 3416.
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