Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mathematical Sciences

Committee Chair/Advisor

Leo Rebholz

Committee Member

Timo Heister

Committee Member

Qingshan Chen

Committee Member

Hyesuk Lee


To better understand and solve problems involving the natural phenomenon of fluid and air flows, one must understand the Navier-Stokes equations. Branching several different fields including engineering, chemistry, physics, etc., these are among the most important equations in mathematics. However, these equations do not have analytic solutions save for trivial solutions. Hence researchers have striven to make advancements in varieties of numerical models and simulations. With many variations of numerical models of the Navier-Stokes equations, many lose important physical meaningfulness. In particular, many finite element schemes do not conserve energy, momentum, or angular momentum. In this thesis, we will study new methods in solving the Navier-Stokes equations using models which have enhanced conservation qualities, in particular, the energy, momentum, and angular momentum conserving (EMAC) scheme. The EMAC scheme has gained popularity in the mathematics community over the past few years as a desirable method to model fluid flow. It has been proven to conserve energy, momentum, angular momentum, helicity, and others. EMAC has also been shown to perform better and maintain accuracy over long periods of time compared to other schemes. We investigate a fully discrete error analysis of EMAC and SKEW. We show that a problematic dependency on the Reynolds number is present in the analysis for SKEW, but not in EMAC under certain conditions. To further explore this concept, we include some numerical experiments designed to highlight these differences in the error analysis. Additionally, we include other projection methods to measure performance. Following this, we introduce a new EMAC variant which applies a differential spatial filter to the EMAC scheme, named EMAC-Reg. Standard models, including EMAC, require especially fine meshes with high Reynold's numbers. This is problematic because the linear systems for 3D flows will be far too large and take an extraordinary amount of time to compute. EMAC-Reg not only performs better on a coarser mesh, but maintains conservation properties as well. Another topic in fluid flow computing that has been gaining recognition is reduced order models. This method uses experimental data to create new models of reduced computational complexity. We introduce the concept of consistency between a full order and a reduced order model, i.e., using the same numerical scheme for the full order and reduced order model. For inconsistency, one could use SKEW in the full order model and then EMAC for the reduced order model. We explore the repercussions of having inconsistency between these two models analytically and experimentally. To obtain a proper linear system from the Navier-Stokes equations, we must solve the nonlinear problem first. We will explore a method used to reduce iteration counts of nonlinear problems, known as Anderson acceleration. We will discuss how we implemented this using the finite element library deal.II \cite{dealII94}, measure the iteration counts and time, and compare against Newton and Picard iterations.



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