Date of Award

May 2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical Engineering

Committee Member

Hai Xiao

Committee Member

Fei Peng

Committee Member

Lin Zhu

Committee Member

Kuangching Wang


Research and development in advanced manufacturing for sensors and devices fabrication is continuously changing the world, assisting to giving sensing solutions in the physical, chemical and biological fields. Specifically, many modern engineered systems are designed to operate under extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, corrosion/erosion, strong electromagnetic interference, heavy load, long reaching distance, limited space, etc. Very often, these extreme conditions not only degrade the performance of the system but also impose risks of catastrophic failures and severe consequences. To perform reliably under these harsh conditions, the materials and components need to be properly monitored and the systems need to be optimally controlled. However, most existing sensing technologies are insufficient to work reliably under these harsh conditions. Innovations in sensor design, fabrication and packaging are needed to address the technological challenges and bridge the capability gaps.

Optical fiber sensors have been widely researched and developed for energy, defense, environmental, biochemical and industry sensing applications. In general, optical fiber sensors have a number of well-known advantages such as miniature in size, high sensitivity, long reaching distance, capability of multiplexing and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In addition, optical fiber sensors are capable of operating under extreme environment conditions, such as high temperature, high pressure, and toxic/corrosive/erosive atmospheres. However, optical fiber sensors are also fragile and easy to break. It has been a challenging task to fabricate and package optical fiber sensors with predicable performance and desired reliability under harsh conditions.

The latest advancements in high precision laser micromachining and three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques have opened a window of opportunity to manufacture new photonic structures and integrated sensing devices that deliver unprecedented performance. Consequently, the optical sensor field has quietly gone through a revolutionary transition from the traditional discrete bulk optics to today’s devices and structures with enhanced functionalities and improved robustness for harsh environment applications.

Driven by the needs for sensors capable of operating in harsh environments, integrated additive and subtractive manufacturing (IASM) for glass photonics sensor fabrication process has been proposed and developed. In this dissertation, a series of high-performance optical fiber sensors were proposed and fabricated. In addition, several significant sensing measurements (e.g., pressure, temperature, refractive index variation) of the proposed sensors and structures with enhanced robustness were demonstrated in this dissertation. To realize measurement of above parameters, different working principles were studied, including mechanical deflection, light-material interaction and utilizing properties of fluidics. The sensing performance of the fabricated sensors and structures were characterized to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed IASM process on advanced manufacturing of glass photonic sensors with specific geometry and functions, and the realization for information integrated manufacturing purpose.



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