Date of Award

May 2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management

Committee Member

Sheila J. Backman

Committee Member

Kenneth F. Backman

Committee Member

Muzaffer Uysal

Committee Member

Brent L. Hawkins


Festivals provide numerous benefits for societies. For instance, they enhance destinations’ images in visitors’ mind, therefore they are very useful marketing tools to promote the destinations and their attractions (Fredline & Faulkner, 2000; Yolal et al., 2016). They also have a great impact on boosting local economy through tax revenues, increased employment and business opportunities through increased visitor arrivals, expanded tourist season, and extended length of stay and expenditures (Yolal et al., 2009). Moreover, they have positive social impacts on local communities such as increasing the community attachment of residents (Lau & Li, 2015) and strengthening community ties with past or existing culture which help to preserve local culture (Bagiran & Kurgun, 2013). Beyond generating all the economic and social benefits and opportunities, festivals are likely to create positive significant impacts on both the residents’ and visitors’ subjective well-being (SWB) (Jepson & Stadler, 2017; Packer & Ballantyne, 2011; Yolal et al., 2016).

Despite the substantial literature on the association between leisure, recreation, tourism, travel and subjective well-being (SWB), until recently, there are only few studies concerning festivals’ positive impacts on SWB (Jepson & Stadler, 2017; Yolal, Gursoy, & Uysal, 2016). Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of the possible impacts of festival participation on SBW of festival participants. Moreover, the study investigated the relationships between the following main constructs: festival motivations, festival satisfaction, perceived social impacts of festival, social well-being, subjective wellbeing (positive affect, negative affect and life satisfaction), revisit intention and word of mouth.

The study used a face to face survey to obtain quantitative data. The data was collected from the attendees of the 6th International Orange Blossom Carnival, 2018 in Adana, Turkey. A total of 652 festival visitors were approached and invited to participate in the survey. Of the 652 visitors, 550 accepted to be in the study and filled out the survey (response rate: %84). The data was analyzed using SPSS 25 and EQS 6.3 with advanced Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA). To test the hypothetical relationships, the structural equation modeling (SEM) method was adopted.

Based on the results of final structural model, some hypotheses were rejected while most of the hypotheses failed to be rejected. While no significant relationship was found between festival motivation and wellbeing factors (positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction and social wellbeing), significant association was found between festival satisfaction and wellbeing factors. The results also indicate that there is a significant relationship between the perceived social impacts of the festival and wellbeing of the festival attendees. Furthermore, the study also found that positive affect has a positive link to revisit intention and word of mouth, while negative affect has negative associations with both revisit intention and word of mouth. The findings suggest that moods during the festival impacts the participants intention to revisit the festival next year. Similar to affect, life satisfaction has also significant relationship with both revisit intention and word of mouth. This finding suggest that individuals who has higher life satisfaction has higher intention to revisit the festival. Finally, the study found a significant association link from social wellbeing to both revisit intention and word of mouth recommendations.

The study provided important practical implications for festival organizers and community leaders to maximize the positive social benefits of festivals and gain more support for their organizations. Identifying the factors affecting subjective well-being of attendees and understanding the relationships among the factors can help organizers to develop strategies to monitor and better manage these factors.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.