Date of Award

December 2016

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Electrical and Computer Engineering (Holcomb Dept. of)

Committee Member

Elham Makram

Committee Member

Richard Groff

Committee Member

Anthony Martin

Committee Member

William Bridges

Abstract

The use of fossil fuel, which has been one of the major sources of energy of the modern world, has led to environmental concerns. One solution to these issues is the application of renewable energy, which can also address the fluctuation in fuel prices. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) faces a demand of energy expected to exceed 120 GW by 2032.

The government is taking appropriate actions, introducing sustainable renewable energy not only to meet the demand with clean energy sources but also to reduce the Kingdom’s consumption of fuel and gas. KSA, which has a high irradiation rate especially in the northwest area, Tabuk Region, plans to invest 41 GW maximum of solar power. In light of this decision, this research will present a comprehensive study of PV penetration up to peak output of 40 MW with battery storage to the isolated northwest grid, Tabuk Grid, as a first stage development.

However, the increase of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) in the presence of nonlinear loads, and the growth of power electronic applications produce harmonics in the power system. These harmonics may distort the current and voltage waveforms which impact the power quality and affect the operation of all electric devices.

Renewable energy systems nowadays are sufficiently developed to be widely used for environmental and economic dispatch (ED) concerns. However, renewable energy that are not geographically distributed present a considerable challenge with respect to variability and availability. One of the solutions for addressing the challenge of solar variability is to use battery storage, which has been found to be effective when working in parallel with PV in peak load shaving. Time shifting renewable energy generation through the use of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) can reduce the operating cost. Many studies have been focused on optimal operation with PV and battery storage. However, while achieving this optimal operation for the generators is necessary, it does not ensure secure operation of power systems. Therefore, validating secure operation with optimal generation scheduling is important. Furthermore, disregarding the battery life in optimal power scheduling creates an unrealistic scenario since replacing the battery is costly.

In this research, a comprehensive study of a 40 MW PV penetration with battery storage to the Tabuk Grid is presented. The study includes complete simulation and analysis of the PV integration with storage. Moreover, a power quality study for the PV farm is conducted, one that included nonlinear loads to enhance the analysis regarding harmonics penetration. In addition, this research presents an optimal generation scheduling considering renewable energy sources, the BESS, battery life and short term outages. This will enables the system to respond and resolve outages quickly without affecting the optimal operation. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated on Tabuk system – an isolated northwest grid in Saudi Arabia.

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