Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Institute on Family and Community Life

Committee Member

Dr. Susan P. Limber, Committee Co-chair

Committee Member

Dr. Martie Thompson, Committee Co-chair

Committee Member

Dr. Beverly J. Nyberg

Committee Member

Dr. Arelis Moore de Peralta

Committee Member

Dr. Jill McLeigh


The elevated prevalence of violence polyvictimization in Sub-Saharan communities underscores the need for contextually relevant child protection. Yet research on methods that counter violence is scarce in these settings. Since multi-sectoral methods have shown higher potential than single violence interventions alone, the World Health Organization with 9 partners created the INSPIRE model. INSPIRE utilizes an integrated approach to violence, coordinated across formal and informal settings of civil and private society. This secondary analysis employed a cross-sectional correlational design, consisting of a sample of 2,477 South African children aged 10-17 from the Young Carers 2009-2010 study conducted in a low-income, HIV-endemic province of South Africa. Multiple logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between 4 INSPIRE-based violence prevention strategies (VPSs), both individually and in graded doses, to 9 violence outcomes. Findings showed that individual VPSs had significant negative associations to every violence outcome, with interventions of material supplement at home and at school having the broadest range of lessened likelihood to experiences of violence. These findings confirm research of current Sub-Saharan studies validating social protection as an effective means to ease poverty’s stresses, thereby reducing the likelihood of children’s violence exposure. Combined interventions were associated with amplified protection for children. Importantly, combined interventions evidenced potential strength to counter violence resistant to single interventions. These study findings provide insights for stakeholders seeking effective interventions and combinations that effectively prevent and reduce children’s exposure to violence by addressing the root causes that harm them, their families, and their communities.



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