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Transactions on Biomedical Engineering





Objective: The Physiology Simulation Coupled Experiment (PSCOPE) is a hybrid modeling framework that enables a physical fluid experiment to operate in the context of a closed-loop computational simulation of cardiovascular physiology. Previous PSCOPE methods coupled rigid experiments to a lumped parameter network (LPN) of physiology but are incompatible with volumetrically dynamic experiments where fluid volume varies periodically. We address this limitation by introducing a method capable of coupling rigid, multi-branch, and volumetrically dynamic in-vitro experiments to an LPN. Methods: Our proposed method utilizes an iterative weighted-averaging algorithm to identify the unique solution waveforms for a given PSCOPE model. We confirm the accuracy of these PSCOPE solutions by integrating mathematical surrogates of in vitro experiments directly into the LPN to derive reference solutions, which serve as the gold standard to validate the solutions obtained from using our proposed method to couple the same mathematical surrogates to the LPN. Finally, we illustrate a practical application of our PSCOPE method by coupling an in-vitro renal circulation experiment to the LPN. Results: Compared to the reference solution, the normalized root mean square error of the flow and pressure waveforms were 0.001%∼0.55%, demonstrating the accuracy of the coupling method. Conclusion: We successfully coupled the in-vitro experiment to the LPN, demonstrating the real-world performance within the constraints of sensor and actuation limitations in the physical experiment. Significance: This study introduces a PSCOPE method that can be used to investigate medical devices and anatomies that exhibit periodic volume changes, expanding the utility of the hybrid framework.


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