Using a pre-test/post-test/follow-up/hindsight format, the study described here evaluated the development of leadership life skills in the participants in the Appalachian Regional Commission Youth Leadership Incubator Program. The participants consisted of youth (n=32), ages 12 to 17, from seven economically distressed counties in the Appalachian Region of Alabama. Repeated-measures analyses and paired samples t-tests indicated significant differences between pre-, post-, and follow-up scores when using hindsight shifts in the analyses. Hindsight shifts seem to more accurately measure the changes in participant ability
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Smith, T. A., Genry, L. S., & Ketring, S. A. (2005). Evaluating a Youth Leadership Life Skills Development Program. The Journal of Extension, 43(2), Article 12. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol43/iss2/12