Land-grant universities have a historical role of serving Americans through the Cooperative Extension Service (CES); however, not all citizens are equally served by CES. Using a mailed survey, we identified a subpopulation of farmers who did not use CES and compared them to those who did. CES should develop communication systems that reach late adopters using their preferred modes of receiving information such as direct mailings. It is the responsibility of the CES to serve all stakeholders through the mandate of the Morrill Act.

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