Employee Participation in Decision Making in Extension: A Ladder of Participation to Reduce Cynicism
There is much discussion in modern management, and in Extension, about "pushing decisions down to the lowest level." However, there is also much cynicism among employees in Extension about executive decisions and how employees are involved in decisions. A "ladder of decision making" is offered as a typology of seven levels of decisions. From highest to lowest, the ladder incrementally shifts the responsibility to make the decision from the executive to employees. Potential benefits of the ladder include improving the quality of Extension employees participation and reducing their cynicism.
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Gallagher, T. J. (2002). Employee Participation in Decision Making in Extension: A Ladder of Participation to Reduce Cynicism. The Journal of Extension, 40(5), Article 3. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/joe/vol40/iss5/3