Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

Formatting requirements

International Yeats Studies (IYS) has no general rules about the file format of articles upon initial submission. For final submission, it is the responsibility of the author to produce an electronic version of the article as a Microsoft Word file.

To submit, please complete the following steps:

  1. Write your article in English, using US spelling and punctuation conventions. For spelling, refer to Merriam-Webster's 12th edition, available online at https://www.merriam-webster.com; for punctuation, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition.
  2. Please spell-check your manuscript before submission, using US spelling.
  3. Do not include a title page. Please submit your abstract in a separate Word document.
  4. Page size should be 8.5 x 11 inches (standard US letter); all margins (left, right, top, and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  5. Please double-space the entire manuscript, including endnotes; all text should be left-justified.
  6. Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
  7. Use Times New Roman font; main text should be 12 pt., while endnotes should be 10 pt.; font color should be black (although color may be used in figures, maps, etc.)
  8. If your article is divided into sections, please use 12 pt. bold font for section headings, preceded by roman numerals (I, II, etc.).
  9. Do not format the text as if it were a printed book or article (for instance, introducing page or section breaks, using running heads, formatting subheads in display fonts.
  10. Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file.

Citation styles

The International Yeats Studies (IYS) house style is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, with one significant adaptation: we ask authors to use in-text citations for standard works by or about Yeats. For all other references, IYS uses a complete endnote system in lieu of a full bibliography.

Please do not use abbreviations such as ibid., op. cit., or art cit., as this frequently leads to errors during the editorial process.

In-text Yeats citations

The IYS Abbreviations List (https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/iys/iys_abbreviations.html) provides standard abbreviations for editions of works by and about Yeats that are commonly used in Yeats scholarship. Please use these abbreviations and cite these works using an in-text citation, as below.


"You have deluded me my whole life through, / Accursed dancers, you have stolen my life" (VPl 411).

For works by Yeats that are not included in the IYS Abbreviations List, please create an abbreviation for in-text use, and provide an endnote with the full publication information at the first use of that citation.

All other citations

For non-Yeats citations or for works about Yeats that are not included in the IYS Abbreviations List, please use endnotes, as per The Chicago Manual of Style. The first citation of a work should include the full bibliographic information; subsequent citations of the same work should use a short title format. Do not include a separate bibliography.

Example (first citation):

Lene Østermark-Johansen, Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture (Abingdon: Routledge, 2016), 9.

Example (subsequent citations):

Østermark-Johansen, Walter Pater, 16.


Please ensure that short titles are unambiguous, make sense to the reader, and are consistent throughout the notes. Endnotes should be confined, as far as possible, to necessary references.

Commonly-used abbreviations in endnotes include the following:

  • Number: no.
  • Editor: ed.
  • Editors: eds.
  • Translator: trans.
  • Chapter: ch.
  • Appendix: app.
  • Figure: fig.
  • Note 5: n5
  • For US states, use the official (not postal) abbreviations, found here: http://www.stateabbreviations.us

A good resource for formatting various types of works using The Chicago Manual of Style is available here: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/03/

Figures and tables

Please send figures and tables in a separate file from the main article.

Please use 12 pt. Times New Roman font (or the closest comparable font available) for all figures, tables, and captions.

Titles for figures and tables should use bold font and appear above the figure or table; captions should use roman font and appear below the figure or table, and include source references in parantheses. Sources should always be provided, using the same citation conventions described above.

Please ensure that all materials fit within the same margins as for the regular text (standard US letter, with 1.5" margins).


Figures include illustrations, graphs, charts, maps, etc. Once articles are accepted for publication authors will be asked to send figures in publishable format. At that stage, graphs should be supplied as Excel files with data attached so that formatting changes can be made. Please be aware that high-resolution files (300dpi+) will be required for all published images and that the intellectual property and all reproduction rights for images online remain with the author/publisher regardless of prior electronic or print distribution.

It is the author's responsibility to clear all copyright permissions for any text or illustrative material that is not your own work yet will be appearing in your article. For more information on permissions, see Section 1 of the Clemson University Press author's guide, https://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/press/files/resources/clemson-authorguide.pdf

Figures should be numbered consecutively as they appear, as follows: Figure 1.1; Figure 1.2; etc. Authors should indicate the position the figure should occupy in the text, as follows: {INSERT FIGURE 1.1 HERE}


Tables should be created using the Word Tables options, rather than being scanned in, submitted as images, or produced using rules and the tab key. Tables are printed without vertical rules (lines) but horizontal rules should be used (sparingly) for clarity.

Tables should be numbered consecutively as they appear, as follows: Table 1.1; Table 1.2; etc. Authors should indicate the position the table should occupy in the text, as follows: {INSERT TABLE 1.1 HERE}

Common style issues


  • Use one space (not two) after the punctuation at the end of a sentence
  • Use the serial or Oxford comma, e.g., "I enjoy reading Yeats, including his poetry, plays, and prose."
  • Use 's for possessives; e.g., Yeats's poetry, not Yeats' poetry
  • Hyphenation should be used sparingly; most compound words can be used without a hyphen, e.g., prewar, postwar, midcentury
  • When two words are used adjectivally they should be hyphenated, e.g., workingclass housing, short-term change
  • Use an American (long) em-dash (e.g. —)
  • Insert one space between initials: W. B. Yeats (not W.B.)


  • Use initial capitals for artistic movements, e.g., Romanticism, Modernism
  • Use initial capitals for historical periods, e.g., Middle Ages, Irish Famine
  • Use initial capitals for political and administrative units, e.g., Northern Ireland, South Carolina, East Anglia
  • Use initial lower case for geographical divisions or where usage is less specific, e.g., south Wales, north-western England, central and eastern Europe.
  • Use initial capitals for titles and ranks where they accompany a proper name, e.g., Victoria, Queen of England; Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury; John Smith, Mayor of Wandsworth
  • Use initial capitals for specific religious denominations and sects, e.g., Protestant, Catholic, Methodist; use lower case where non-specific, e.g., puritan, nonconformist
  • Use initial capitals for political parties and institutions, e.g., the Liberal Party, Sein Fein, House of Lords


  • Spell out whole numbers up to and including one hundred, except for page numbers, e.g., ninety-seven, 104
  • Use an en dash in number ranges, e.g.: 11–12, 22–29, 126–37, 1865–1939.
  • Spell out whole numbers up to and including one hundred when followed by hundred, thousand, million, etc. – e.g., forty-seven billion
  • Spell out ordinal numbers up to and including hundredth – e.g., "The year 1965 marked the hundredth anniversary of Yeats's birth."
  • Use "nineteenth century," not "19th century"
  • Spell out all numbers that begin a sentence – e.g., "Eighteen sixty-five, the year of Yeats's birth"


  • Well-known abbreviations should be used when appropriate and followed by a full stop, e.g., Mrs., Prof., Ltd.
  • Full stops are not needed in acronyms or abbreviations which consist of a sequence of capital letters, e.g., University College Dublin (UCD)


  • Titles of books, plays, and works of art should be italicized – e.g., W. B. Yeats, The Countess Cathleen; Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa
  • Titles of poems should be enclosed in double quotes – e.g., W. B. Yeats, "Adam's Curse"
  • Titles within titles are set roman, e.g. "A Reader's Guide to Yeats's A Vision"


  • Maintain original spelling and punctuation within quotations
  • Use double quotes (" ") for quotations; if there is a quote within the quotation, use single quotes (' ') – e.g., "I overheard her say, 'I only read Yeats!'"
  • Punctuation marks at the end of quotations are placed inside the quotation marks– e.g., "According to my professor, 'It is always a good idea to read Yeats.'"
  • To indicate an omission from a quotation use a bracketed ellipsis of three points (not four), with a letter space before and after, e.g., "Nobody can stray into that little Byzantium chapel at Palermo [...] without for an instant renouncing the body and all its works" (UP2 478).

Block quotations

  • A quotation of 50 words or more should be formatted as a block quotation.
  • Do not enclose block quotations in quote marks.
  • Include an extra line immediately preceding and following a block quotation. Indent the entire block quotation by .5" (the same as you would for the start of a new paragraph).
  • Place punctuation at the end of the sentence, prior to any in-text citation for works by Yeats. (In the main body of the article, the punctuation should come after the in-text citation.)

Yeats, in his 1937 introduction to his plays, remarked:
     I hated the existing conventions of the theatre, not because conventions
     are wrong but because soliloquies and players who must always face the
     audience and stand far apart when they speak—"dressing the stage" it was
     called—had been mixed up with too many bad plays to be endurable. Frank Fay
     agreed, yet he knew the history of all the conventions and sometimes
     loved them. (CW2, 24)


Foreign language words & translations

  • When used in the main body of the text, words or phrases in foreign languages should be italicized; foreign words that are not commonly should be followed by an English translation. Example: She invited him to the feis (feast).
  • Some foreign language words and phrases have been incorporated in to English common usage, e.g., fin de siècle. As a general rule, if the word/phrase is included in Merriam-Webster's 12th edition, available online at https://www.merriamwebster.com, it does not need to be italicized.
  • If you are quoting a short passage in a foreign language, please follow the passage with an English translation, enclosed in brackets. If the passage is a long one, provide an English translation in an endnote. Example: "Is fearr Gaeilge briste, ná Béarla clíste" [broken Irish is better than clever English].