Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium (GRADS)


Biological and Chemical Mechanisms for 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) Degradation


Kevin T. Finneran

Document Type



Environmental Engineering and Science

Publication Date

Spring 2013


The insensitive munition,2,4-dinitroanisole(DNAN), has been used in newly developed explosives as a replacement for the more sensitive munition, trinitrotoluene(TNT). It is important to understand the fate of DNAN in the environment and to establish effective remediation methods due to its high toxicity and potential environmental hazards, should it migrate from Department of Defense facilities in groundwater contamination. We investigated DNAN reduction by aqueous phase Fe(II), organically-complexed iron(II) with several possible Fe(II) ligands, and using model Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms such as Geobacter metallireducens. Data demonstrated that DNAN was completely reduced by Fe(II) alone as well as Fe(II)-ligand complexes including tiron, 2,3-DMSA, 3,4-DHBA, 2,3,4-THBA, gallic acid, malic acid and sodium citrate. The pH had a significant effect on Fe(II)-mediated DNAN reduction. The rate of reduction increased from pH 7.0<8.0 <9.0. Fe(II) alone did not reduce DNAN at pH 6.0, but the ligands were most effective at this slightly acidic pH. Hydroquinone (AH2QDS) reduced DNAN at all pH values tested.

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