Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium (GRADS)


Multitemporal floristic and phenological (flowering) analysis of the shores of Lake Issaqueena, South Carolina


E.A. Mikhailova

Document Type



Forest Resources

Publication Date

Spring 2013


The floristic and phenological(flowering)study of Lake Issaqueena in Pickens County,SC,conducted by William Pamplin in 1970-1971 was reinvestigated in 2011-2012 using the Carolina Vegetative Survey(CVS)natural community sampling methods and photo documentation using a GPS enabled camera to determine floristic and phenological changes for this site during the forty years separating these twostudies.Phenological events(flowering)were recorded via photographs taken by a GPS enabled camera on a monthly basis.Photographs were downloaded and organized by sampling date in Picasa 3 web albums and stored in a project Google website.Plants were identified using expert knowledge,existing keys and the USDA plant database.Precipitation in 1970,2011 and 2012 was below the long-term average and this combined with higher than average air temperature impacted drought severity in the area.Comparison of phenologies indicated 269 plant species blooming in 1970-1971 compared to 203 plant species blooming in 2011-2012 and 149 common plants blooming in both study periods. The blooming period was 11 months in 2011-2012 compared to 8 months in 1970-1971. Majority of plants were blooming earlier and longer in 2011-2012 than in 1970-1971. There appears to be a phenological shift in blooming dates, but it is unclear whether it is due to climatic variation or other environmental changes in the area.

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