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Water Research Foundation


The objective of this project was to conduct a systematic pilot-scale investigation of a hybrid coagulation-ceramic membrane treatment system to gain fundamental insights about necessary pretreatment conditions, fouling mechanisms, and contaminant removal capabilities, using two U.S. surface water sources. A two-phase plan was implemented for each of the three coagulants considered in this study: aluminum sulfate, aluminum chlorohydrate, and ferric chloride. The first phase involved the optimization of the coagulation pretreatment conditions that provided the best performance in terms of particle removal, organics removal, and membrane fouling. The second phase involved a comprehensive performance evaluation of the optimized system. The removal of precursors of selected regulated and emerging disinfection by-products as well as selected microorganisms and surrogates from the two U.S. surface waters was determined.


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