Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Education & Social Policy


The Pledge of Allegiance has become a tradition in schools throughout the United States. The debate on this practice has often been limited due to the ideas of national pride that surround the pledge. This article addresses both the problematic history of the pledge, the protected precedence of teachers and students refusing to state the pledge, the pledge’s international abnormality, and the practical and philosophical concerns of a daily pledge in the public school setting. The article’s contention is that the pledge introduces a shallow view of national loyalty, while simultaneously endangering religious liberty, overlooking the views of marginalized and immigrant students, and promoting nationalism and a more subtle militarism. The article concludes with beneficial alternatives schools could use in place of a daily pledge and the societal benefits of reconsidering this tradition.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.