Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Committee Chair/Advisor

Robin Kowalski

Committee Member

Mary Anne Taylor

Committee Member

Patrick Rosopa


A substantial body of research shows that female academics have faced lower salaries, fewer promotions, and lower rates of tenure than male academics. Proposed mechanisms include higher demands for unrewarded service in the teaching-research-service ratio and significant obstacles in balancing work and family. This study proposed the ‘Academic Tetrad,’ which includes the additional facet of home life, as an alternative to the traditional ‘Academic Trinity’ perspective. The present study utilized an intersectional perspective to examine the academic tetrad, key workplace variables, and work-life balance across the COVID-19 transition to online work. The findings countered previous research by showing equality on research and service load, but revealing trends of professors of color spending more time on teaching and less on home/family duties. White women reported more burnout than white men in organizations with toxic masculinity culture, but job satisfaction, embeddedness, and commitment were equal across gender and ethnicity - until the transition to online work. Professors of color experienced a stronger negative impact on job satisfaction while working online, but increased organizational commitment. The COVID-19 online transition negatively impacted many aspects of professorship, but most impacts were universal rather than specific to racial or gender identities.



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