Date of Award

August 2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



Committee Member

Patrick J Rosopa

Committee Member

Mary A Taylor

Committee Member

Sarah Winslow


In the workplace, gender norms often affect women more negatively than men. Although women have demonstrated their abilities and competence in a variety of occupations and workplace settings, progress toward gender equity in academia is at a plateau. Using organizational support and organizational justice literature as a theoretical foundation, the purpose of the current study was to determine if two antecedents—perceived organizational support and procedural justice—influence how academics allocate their time spent on research, service, and teaching during the workweek and weekend. Ideal (i.e., preferred) time allocation and actual time allocation were examined. In addition, gender was proposed as a moderator of these relationships. Research on the potential antecedents of self-discrepant time allocation (i.e., the mismatch between ideal and actual time allocation) can enhance the understanding of how men and women faculty spend their time. To test hypotheses, time diary data was collected from faculty at a university in the southeastern U.S. Focal antecedent variables were collected in the first measurement wave. The second measurement wave, approximately one year later, assessed both ideal time allocation and actual time allocation. Although perceived organizational support and procedural justice did not predict research, service, and teaching self-discrepant time allocations, during the workweek and weekend, there were statistically significant findings when examining men and women’s research, service, and teaching during the workweek and weekend. The current study offers insight on academics’ time allocation and directions for future research, including improved measurement when categorizing daily activities. Overall, understanding discrepancies between ideal time allocation and actual time allocation in research, teaching, and service between men and women faculty can potentially improve organizational climate and retention in academia.



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