Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Legacy Department

Applied Sociology

Committee Chair/Advisor

Haller, William

Committee Member

Mobley , Catherine

Committee Member

Denton , Melinda


The disadvantaged groups (elderly, gender, minorities, and individuals of lower SES) suffer from inequality of leisure participation. This study explores the theoretical frameworks of multiple hierarchy stratification in order to better understand the perceived constraints of leisure activities according to socio-demographic variables and how single and multiple statuses influence an individual's participation in leisure activities.
This study explores the relationship between leisure constraints and socio-demographic variables using cross tabulation, and investigate net effects of socio-demographic variables and combined effects of socio-demographic variables in two different types of leisure activities using binary regression.
The findings suggest that the disadvantaged groups have parking problems and transportation problems as the main constraints. Also, it is expected that the disadvantaged groups face a higher number of leisure constraints than the advantaged groups. But, this study suggests in the number of leisure constraints for gender and race.
According to stratified groups, elderly, minorities, and females are more likely to participate in social events while they are reluctant to participate in outdoor recreation. For the combined effects, elderly minorities as well as elderly minority females are more likely to participate in social events. On the other hand, they are less likely to participate in outdoor recreation. Those interactions are significant, which corresponds to multiple hierarchy stratification.

Included in

Sociology Commons



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