Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department

Curriculum and Instruction


Gambrell, Linda B

Committee Member

Stecker , Pamela M

Committee Member

Thompson , Martha


A growing body of research supports instructional strategies, such as concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence, to teach mathematics to students at risk of failure, including those with disabilities. This study extends the current body of CRA research by analyzing the effects of CRA sequence of instruction on student achievement, and retention, and self-efficacy of performance on computations of fractions. Thirty-five students participated in this study. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to assess main effects and interaction effects for performance and self-efficacy of students in a control group who received traditional fractions instruction and a treatment group who received CRA sequenced instruction. Results revealed significant differences between the control and treatment groups on delayed-post measures of fractions computations. Students in the CRA group outperformed peers in the control group on the delayed-post assessment. No significant differences were detected on self-efficacy measures, with the exception of sources of self-efficacy. Vicarious experiences as a source of self-efficacy significantly decreased on delayed-post measures. Students in the CRA group scored significantly higher than peer in the control group on the construct of negative psychological state (e.g., anxiety) as a source of self-efficacy on the presurvey, but not on the post- or delayed-post surveys, as a result of decrease in scores of negative psychological state.