Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Committee Chair/Advisor

Annel K. Greene

Committee Member

William C. Bridges, Jr.

Committee Member

Zeynep Banu Guzel-Seydim

Committee Member

Atif Can Seydim


Kefir grains were purchased from online, home kitchen vendors in the United States (n = 22), inoculated into UHT milk, and incubated at 25°C for 22 hours. Results indicated lactobacilli, lactococci and yeast in all samples. Six out of 11 samples contained coliform, and all samples contained pseudomonal and staphylococcal species. Using targeted genome sequencing (16S) of kefir grain samples 1, 2, and 3 revealed that lactobacilli were the predominant genera of bacteria. ITS sequencing revealed different fungal species in each grain. Results indicated potential presence of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

The fermentation of whole and ground soybeans, chickpeas, and lentils by Bacillus subtilis natto was examined. Day 1 post-fermentation microbial counts on TGY media were significantly different (P P P P = 0.3498). Whole lentils and ground lentils were significantly different (P1, menaquinone-4, and menaquinone-7.

The boron content was measured in a variety of different rendered animal products (n = 66) and plant feedstuffs (n = 23). There was a significant difference in boron content among rendered animal products where meat and bone meal (MBM) had the greatest boron content (2.54 ± 0.24 mg/kg), and feather meal (FM) had the lowest boron content (0.33 ± 0.13 mg/kg) (PP

Author ORCID Identifier




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