Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Committee Chair/Advisor

Dr. Marissa Shuffler-Porter

Committee Member

Dr. Thomas W. Britt

Committee Member

Dr. Patrick Rosopa

Committee Member

Dr. Emily Hirsh


Healthcare organizations have been heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with emergency departments (EDs) facing especially large burdens. Increased patient volumes, fewer opportunities to disengage from work, and the persistence of the pandemic over many months continue to place demands on emergency medicine clinicians (EMC) and may elevate their levels of psychological stress. Psychological resilience and meaningful work experiences may protect EMC from these negative effects but may also be negatively impacted by high levels of ED crowding. Using the Job-Demands Resources model as a theoretical framework, this dissertation sough to explore how ED crowding (measured objectively and subjectively), psychological resilience, and meaningful work experiences function to impact EMCs’ self-reported psychological distress. A mixed methods design was used to triangulate data from qualitative and qualitative results. Psychological resilience and meaningful work experiences were both negatively associated with psychological distress. Neither objective nor subjective ED crowding were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Psychological resilience and meaningful work experiences did not moderate the relationships between ED crowding and psychological distress.

Author ORCID Identifier




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