Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Dr. Chad Sosolik, Committee Chair
Dr. W. Rod Harrell
Dr. Endre Takacs
Dr. Steve Stuart
The transport and interaction of singly- and multiply-charged ions with matter has been studied. The experiments were performed in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The low- and hyperthermal-energy ion beamline was used as a source of singly charged ions, while the CUEBIT facility was used as a source of multiply charged ions. The kinetic energy of the ion beam obtained from the CUEBIT is offset from the nominal value expected from the applied electrostatic potentials. These offsets were studied by measuring the kinetic energy of the beam using a retarding field analyzer (RFA). The offset was attributed to the space charge of the electron beam that is used to create the multiply charged ions. The charge density of the electron beam was varied by changing operational parameters of the electron beam, namely the electron beam current and the energy of the electron beam. Ion beams of Ar4+ and Ar8+ were extracted from the source and the offsets observed in the kinetic energy were related to the variation in the space charge potential of the electron beam. Measurements of these offsets, ranging from 100 eV/Q to 300 eV/Q, are significant and important for experiments that aim to utilize the potential energy of slow multiply charged ions. The transport of ions using capillaries has been studied to investigate the viability of ion-guiding as a means for a novel ion delivery mechanism. Results on transport through large bore capillaries (macrocapillaries) that probe both the geometric and ionguided mechanisms are presented. The angle- and position-dependent transport properties were found to depend on the material of the capillary (specifically, whether metal or insulator) and the geometry of the capillary. Rb+ ions at a kinetic energy of 1 keV were transmitted through metal and glass capillaries that were a few centimeters in length and a few millimeters in diameter. Oscillations were observed in the capillaries made of glass which were absent in the metal capillaries. Calculations based on the geometry of the experimental setup and kinematics of the ions showed that these oscillations could be attributed to the charge patches formed on the capillary walls. Electronic excitations in solids due to energetic ions at low kinetic energy were measured by using Schottky diodes. Hot electron currents measured at the backside of an Ag/n-Si Schottky diode due to ion bombardment on the frontside were found to depend on the kinetic energy (500 eV to 1500 eV) and angle of incidence (+/-30o) of the ion (Rb+) beam. A sharp upturn in the energy dependent yield is consistent with a kinetic emission model for electronic excitations utilizing the device Schottky barrier as determined from current-voltage characteristics. Backside currents measured for ion incident angle are strongly peaked about normal incidence. Accounting for the increased transport distance for excited charges at non-normal incidence, the mean free path for electrons in silver was found to be 5:2 +/- 1:4 nm, which is consistent with values reported in the literature.
Kulkarni, Dhruva, "Metrology and Transport of Multiply Charged Ions" (2017). All Dissertations. 1919.